All Children Must Be in Class: Popular Representations of Class and Childhood in Nineteenth-Century America

Paul Moffett


Focusing on George Thompsons City Crimes and on Richard Outcaults Yellow Kid newspaper comics, this article argues that nineteenth-century urban childhood is a constructed, classed identity. Though it has attracted less critical attention than gender, race, and class, age is also a social construct. Shared cultural assumptions mediate the way society imagines childhood and the way children are expected to behave. These assumptions play out in fiction, specifically in the ways children are depicted in fiction. Thompson and Outcaults different depictions of childhood reflect the differing way the two writers associate childhood with class. Thompson depicts children as innocent, and as threatened by the corrupting influence of the city, because Thompsons children are symbols of bourgeois purity. Outcault, by contrast, depicts children as a wild and corrupting influence upon the city, because Outcaults children are symbols of poverty and its threat to bourgeois safety.


Full Text:


Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.